A lot of discussions has taken place
concerning the housing deal the Government of Ghana signed with
the STX Group of South Korea in early March. Reports indicate the
deal involves building 200,000 housing units in Ghana by 2015, at
a cost of $10 billion, forty percent allocated to security personnel
but other details remain unclear. On the face of it this is a welcome
development but there are concerns over this deal that scratches
the tip of a major housing crisis and could create barriers to our
further developing the housing and real estate industry. This article
generally gives solutions to how Ghana can close its one million
housing deficit, and addresses interrelated questions relating to
Industrialisation, Job creation and Money.
The housing challenge is immense and the entire body of knowledge
that facilitates its delivery must be developed if we are to successfully
address the deficit, with active participation by the State in key
areas, as has been done in other countries.
I have nothing against the Koreans. They are some of the finest
people on this planet and have worked extremely hard to build South
Korea after the war. They may have good intentions and we can learn
a lot from their technologically advanced but very cultured society.
But if we ask the Koreans their experience on how they built their
way out of third world status, they would say they looked inward,
developed their institutions, generated funds locally and used their
local construction industry. We need to learn from the Korean self-belief,
discipline and nationalism to develop our nation. The Koreans would
be the first to admit that General Park Chung-hee did not invite
foreigners without building institutions and crafting appropriate
technology transfer deals.
We have not grown the institutions that would enable us develop
our housing industry. By proceeding with this deal as presently
crafted, we are essentially developing someone else’s market,
someone’s steel, cement, glass, aluminum, tiles, plastics
- all housing materials - and ultimately exporting Ghanaian jobs.
It is not what we are getting from the Koreans, but what we are
South Korea has more than a dozen institutions researching, regulating
and promoting their housing industry. These include institutions
like the Korea National Housing Corp., Korea Housing Guarantee Company
Ltd., Korea Iron and Steel Institute, Korea Concrete Institute,
among others. These are either government or quasi-government institutions
that have enabled Korea construct 500,000 houses per year with a
housing supply ratio (number of housing units per household) exceeding
100 percent. Ghana’s ratio is less than 50 percent.
The only remaining institution in Ghana, the Building and Road
Research Institute (BRRI), is struggling to survive. Though severely
under-resourced it is turning out useful clay bricks and pozzolana
cement products that support the industry and lower overall building
costs. The HFC Bank, originally established to spearhead mortgage
financing, is scaling-up commercial bank owing to the fall in housing
supply, inadequate construction finance and high cost of mortgages.
The Tema Development Corporation (TDC) and State Housing Company
(SHC) are now quasi real estate agencies. The TDC with all their
advantages and land assets are not doing it right, while the SHC
have retreated to the regions.
But perhaps more importantly Ghana does not have a complete Housing
and Shelter Policy as the draft has remained in that state for the
last three years. There is not a single bill regulating the real
estate industry, leaving house owners at a loss whenever issues
of financing, quality and delivery crop up. Ghana’s construction
industry is also in complete disarray.
It would appear the main financing strategy for the Korea deal
is land-financing, an instrument some technocrats, myself included,
have advocated for financing infrastructure. This approach has the
potential of making use of urban lands within the city for development.
It is a great source of funding urban infrastructure and its main
attraction is the upfront generation of funds which reduces the
burden of borrowing.
Land developments are essentially priced to reflect costs of accommodating
growth; the higher the quality of infrastructure, the higher the
land value. Several cities worldwide have done it and the results
of their experiences have been disseminated to our Ministry of Water
Resources, Works and Housing.
Ghanaian professionals in the building industry can execute what
we want the Koreans to do, and in a more sustainable way if we plan
strategically. Planning strategically also involves addressing interrelated
questions relating to land, Industrialisation, money, professional
development and job creation. Unfortunately, engineers are not challenged
enough to help solve the myriad of infrastructure challenges facing
the country. I believe I speak for Civil Engineers on this matter.
We help bring potable water to homes, design the railways and highways,
waste management systems, housing and skyscrapers, dams and bridges,
flood control and water resources systems, sewerage systems, etc.
We do so much for society and are ever prepared to help address
the country’s needs. Most of the nation’s landmarks
were executed by Ghana’s engineers, eg. the Cedi House, the
tallest building in Ghana, some 35 years ago without foreign support.
However, going by recent trends, if they were to be done again today,
most likely, Ghanaian consultants would be denied the job.
The Role of the State
Affordable housing will materialize only if the State takes advantage
of economies of scale in land management, bulk construction materials
and credit (banking or financial) for real estate developers, among
others. No country in the world has overcome its housing challenge
without a strong intervention from the State. In the United States
for example, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac established during the New
Deal era remained Government sponsored entities that until recently
held over $5 trillion of asset backed guarantees.
Housing delivers several advantages to the economy and consequently
the State must take maximum interest in its delivery. Good housing
cultivates good citizenship, ensures that citizens sleep well, think
better and innovate for themselves and the nation. It is a source
of long term finance because it is typically the largest investment
most individuals make in their lifetime. Good housing is not only
a status symbol, but also a symbol of security and inheritance.
There is a strong link between housing and poverty reduction, and
if Ghana gets housing right, many other good things will follow
The State of the Housing Sector
There is enormous demand for housing and yet this country has neglected
the sector much longer than sound public policy would allow. The
2000 Population and Housing Census reported the existence of about
3.88 million dwelling units in Ghana, less than half of which are
classified as houses. As much as fifty per cent of all dwelling
units were constructed with poor quality mud bricks and earth, mostly
with thatched roof and poor floor construction materials. In addition,
74,000 kiosks and containers housed several hundred thousand people
and a large number of people in urban areas sleep on pavements,
walkways and on streets.
The report added that Ghana has 3.7 million households, and growing
at 2 per cent is expected to reach 6 million by 2025. That is 2.3
million new households will be generated, each expected to be sheltered
in a housing unit. Half of all households in Ghana sleep in one
room, 21 per cent in two rooms, 11 per cent in three rooms and only
18 per cent sleep in four or more rooms. The average household size
was 5.1 people.
Further analysis from the report indicates that Ghana had a housing
deficit of one million units as of 2009 that will double in the
next decade if the status quo is maintained. This country must put
up 2.5 million housing units by 2025 if we are to meet the housing
needs of the populace, about 150,000 per year.
It is understandable given the state of the housing situation why
the social cohesion and moral integrity of society are fast slipping.
It is not surprising our country also has worse development indicators
on facilities related to the home; access to toilets, personal computers,
internet connectivity, telephone landlines, etc. The Korean deal
does get closer to a solution. Solving the problem needs a gigantic,
coherent and strategic approach.
Housing and Job Creation
Housing is a big job creator. Developing the housing industry creates
demand for several associated industries; steel, aluminum, cement,
tile, glass etc. These are materials required in almost every building.
And the good news is Ghana has raw material to meet the housing
demands of all Ghanaians, some of them in quantities adequate for
the next 100 years.
Iron ore deposits at Shieni in the Sabzugu/Tatale district in the
Northern Region are ten times those at Opon-Manso and estimated
at 1,270 million tonnes that could yield 350 million metric tonnes
of steel. Shieni is located about 30 km from Yendi. Exploitation
of the ore will create jobs for the youth of the area, help develop
the north and bring the Dagbon crisis to an end, for good. The reality
is peace is a story that is difficult to sell on its own. It must
go hand-in-hand with development. So in the medium to long term,
an integrated steel industry made up of iron ore mining, rolling
mill and fabrication industry must be built at Sabzugu or Yendi.
Housing also brings in its wake investments in household gadgets
and utensils. A decision to construct 2.5 million homes within 15
years translates into electrical fittings and fixtures, aluminum
cables, ironmongery, plumbing and conduit pipes, etc. The realization
of 2.5 million housing units then creates a demand for 2.5 million
stoves, fridges, TVs, stereos, furniture, beds, etc. and the manufacturing
facilities to churn them out, thus creating several hundred thousand
jobs locally. And the populace will have the propensity to purchase
and consume more household items when accommodation is secured.
Housing and real estate provide a large number of jobs for various
strata of construction personnel; planners, architects, engineers,
quantity surveyors, etc. in the high level; middle level technicians;
and a large number of skilled and unskilled labourers such as electricians,
carpenters, bricklayers, masons, plumbers, tilers, etc.
To achieve the desired job-creation prospects, the Government must
make conscious effort to drive national awareness of the importance
of skilled workers in building the nation’s economy. Skilled
labourers must be encouraged to form associations for better identification,
promoting their common interests, and be classified based on their
competence and experience.
With the appropriate strategies, the housing sector can be used
to increase available disposable incomes of the public sector in
exchange for improved productivity and competiveness. Ghanaians
are among the least paid people in the world, and this trend must
be reversed. In a globalizing world, we need to increase the purchasing
power of the Ghanaian to enable our people purchase assets not just
in Ghana but also overseas.
The process of organizing the housing sector must also be tied
to the planning system, land tenure system, building and construction
sectors, standard codes of practice, railways sector, recapitalize
the private sector and kick-starting our industrial development
For example, there is an apparent assumption that rehabilitation
of the railway by itself would improve performance, an action we
have tried in vain over the last 15 years, and provides part of
the explanation for the unfortunate state of affairs of the sector.
The rehabilitation of the lines must be linked to haulage of bulk
construction materials, petroleum products, development of industrial
zones, etc. in several parts of the country. By enabling goods to
be transported more easily, more cheaply and on a larger scale by
itself generates demand for other industries.
To address the country’s housing deficit, a long term development
plan running for a minimum 20 years, eg. Vision 2030 must be prepared.
Planning over a longer term enables all relevant parties to be brought
on board, and takes into consideration population growth, demographics,
environment and other social factors. With development, the urgent
is never important, and the important never urgent. And results
are still visible within a short time.
Next is to craft an industrialisation strategy. Industrialisation
is the only policy directive that will enable the country address
its housing needs in a comprehensive manner. There is almost no
country that one would be prepared to call ‘developed’
that has not gone through industrial transformation.
Industrialisation will help us add value to our mineral wealth
to create more wealth. For example, iron ore sitting in the ground
at Opon-Manso is almost valueless. If that ore is extracted and
smelted, it produces iron, which is far more valuable than the ore.
That iron can then be turned into steel, which can be machined to
build products such as cars, bridges, etc. When it is used to build
automobile, the value is transformed 500 times. Each of those products
is not only worth more than the materials from which it was created,
but it increases the productive power of society as a whole, amplifies
the economic benefit and increases the GDP.
Similar arguments could be made for bauxite which was first exported
from Awaso in 1943 to satisfy aluminium demands of World War Two.
Recently, Rio Tinto Alcan that held 80 percent of the mine decided
to transfer its holdings to Bosai Minerals Group of China. The transfer
in its current form is not in the best interest of the State and
must not proceed. It goes against the Integrated Aluminium Industrialization
Strategy envisioned for the country during the President’s
State of the Nation Address on February 25, 2010. This sale will
deplete the Awaso reserves.
Industrialisation will help us develop a system of production,
distribution, and consumption, a chain which connects food growers
with those who eat it, and miners of ore with those who transform
them into the products upon which we all depend. This supply chain
is a physical, logistical order, an essential component of civilization
which is currently non-existent in Ghana. It is this productive
sector which generates the wealth, and the segment to which greater
attention should be paid if our nation is to thrive. This is real
economics, to be ignored at our peril - and ignore it we have -
as Ghana has focused on macroeconomic indicators for survival.
But the real source of value is neither the money, nor the raw
materials, nor the products produced from them, but mankind’s
ability to figure out the nature of the universe, and to intervene
to create what had not existed previously. Human creativity is the
source of wealth, while money is a mere convenience, a way to exchange
wealth created elsewhere - a challenge to our knowledge and innovation
economy. These issues in the productive sector can be turned around,
if we set aside our fantasies about money and return to the physical
MONEY AND CREDIT
The worst thing we can do is to allow ourselves to be held hostage
about money. Money should not be confused with wealth. Money is
just a tool for measuring the amount of wealth and success a person
or nation has attained. Wealth has always existed whereas money
has not. In this world, it is possible to be wealthy, have a lot
of goods or mineral wealth, but yet be without money. Wealth is
the value of the assets owned by a person, community or a State.
My research at the Minerals Commission, Geological Services Department
and other sources indicates that Ghana has mineral wealth with gross
value in excess of US$1,000 billion. This is a strong security to
mitigate against any venture we undertake. It comprises Gold - $350billion;
Iron ore - $250 billion; Bauxite $250 billion; Oil and Gas $150
billion, etc. This is besides other reserves of economic value in
limestone, kaolin, clay, silica sand, granite, salt, manganese,
The exploitation of these raw materials will invariably lead to
the establishment of several downstream industries, and value addition
in itself creates tremendous wealth and several multiplying effects
in the economy. Why should foreign companies use our discovered
assets as security for loans, develop them and give us 10 percent,
when we can do the same, and take our 100 percent? We need to reverse
this investment regime. It may have happened for the first and second
round of investments, but should not be the working blue print.
Another way of creating wealth is to develop a credit system. We
must improve and enforce trust among ourselves; people must be what
they say they are. If we do not know ourselves, we cannot solve
our problems, we cannot create more money. This is the basis of
a viable credit system. Without an efficient credit system, we cannot
meet our development needs. We must enact a National Credit Act
to give legal basis to the system.
Ghana is also poor because a large number of its populace is in
the informal sector — almost 80 percent. Poverty is an informal
sector phenomenon. Out of an adult population of 12 million, Ghana
has only 1.2 million bank account holders (a ratio of 10%) compared
to Nigeria’s 23 million banks accounts holders among an adult
population of 70 million, (more than 33%). In most emerging countries,
the ratio is close to 100 percent. We cannot brand the country as
financial hub of West Africa with this trend.
It is useful to tailor instruments for the informal sector but
our ultimate aim is to move the entire population to the formal
sector; drivers, farmers, house helps, construction workers, etc.
Then their assets too, houses, cars, land, businesses, etc. all
represented in a property document that is the visible sign of a
vast hidden process that connects to the rest of the economy. Elsewhere,
they are used as collateral for credit. It is about better identification
and the State must create incentives to make this happen, through
attractive social security schemes, credit and housing investment.
This principle is well laid out in Hernando De Soto’s book
The Mystery of Capital.
Naill Ferguson, author of The Ascent of Money also said money,
being a medium of exchange is about trust – trust in the person
paying the money, trust in the central bank issuing the money, trust
in the commercial bank that issued the check. Money is not a metal,
it is trust inscribed, and it doesn’t matter what is inscribed
on, paper, silver, clay, screed, electronic, provided the recipient
believes in it.
Trust is what Ghanaians, ordinary citizens and business leaders
need today as the global economy makes us more and more reliant
on ‘strangers’ to carry on with our business. According
to Stephen Covey in his book “The Speed of Trust”, trusted
people and organizations do things better, faster and at a lower
The British Prime Minister Mr. Gordon Brown, in the heat of the
financial crisis last year said the Latin word for Credit is the
same as the Latin for Belief or Trust. Therefore if we want to develop
credit, we must improve trust among ourselves, trust by the State
and trust by Corporate Ghana.
The National ID system is probably the most important programme
in Ghana today and could help improve trust among ourselves. Ghana
is about the only country in Africa without a national ID system.
It is not surprising interest rates in Ghana are the highest in
Africa. National ID must underpin everything we do. Unfortunately,
registration is in its fourth year and only half of all regions
are covered. We must make conscious effort to make it succeed.
An effort to solve our housing challenge could turn up to be Ghana’s
own home grown solution to the financial crisis – an ideal
economic stimulus package. All over the world, the housing and real
estate industries are the backbone of the economic transformation
of nations. Indeed the value-addition nature of the housing sector
can help to capitalize the private sector and increase the credit
base of the banking and insurance sectors.
Currently, a housing demand of 1 million units needs to be built,
and might double to 2 million within the next decade. There are
new ways of solving the problem that we need to exploit. Albert
Einstein said we cannot do the same thing over and expect different
results. We need to rise above current ways to solve problems. We
cannot develop holding on to the same ideas.
The housing problem can be solved, but not the way we propose to
do with the Korea deal. I believe the Koreans would better serve
Ghana’s needs by helping us address the Railway and Energy
sectors. As the Germans did to their railway sector and the French
and Canadians to the nuclear programme, any arrangement should be
based on technology transfer arrangements.
We must develop more growth centers
Ghana has crossed the 50 percent urbanization mark this year and
for the first time, more people are living in urban areas than rural
areas. In anticipation of urbanization and household growth, the
best way of addressing the housing crisis is to develop new growth
centers and rejuvenate existing towns and cities. Housing involves
a package of services, including the land, services, public facilities,
the structures, recreational facilities, institutions, etc. all
located in towns and cities.
We need to finalize the Shelter policy and create new housing laws
and institutions such as National Housing Authority, Real Estate
Act, Integrated Iron and Steel Authority, Cement Authority, Integrated
Aluminium Authority, etc.
We must take advantage of new ways of addressing housing and plan
our cities well, strengthen the Town and Country Planning Department,
build new cities, do away with conflicting planning laws; cf. Town
Planning Ordinance CAP 84, Local Government Act - Act 462 and NDPC
Act 480. China has planned and modelled out 220 cities of one million
population each that will be built by 2030 and we must use similar
strategies to develop our cities.
Well-designed cities promote the business cycle and provide the
attraction and formal systems to mobilize funds to undertake more
infrastructure investments. Firms prefer to locate in livable cities
because of increased efficiencies in output and trade. Cities also
help to integrate national economies with the rural economy.
One of such cities planned in Ghana is the Western Corridor City
project. Ghana has the land that must be developed, materials to
be mined, people who want to work, professionals who can innovate
and credit systems to be developed. We have everything. And the
recent discovery of oil and gas offers the opportunity to develop
a fresh range of industries, including plastics, cement, bitumen
and fertilizer. Yes, fertilizer is also important since a sound
agricultural foundation is a sine quo non for an irreversible industrial
The nation’s infrastructure is crumbling; a silent water
and energy crisis is taking place, waste management, etc. are in
disarray. Every day as I watch TV3 and Metro TV and see the state
of infrastructure in our public hospitals, schools, police stations,
prisons, etc. I feel this country is gearing for major crisis unless
something drastic is done. We need to attempt measures like what
are described above. There are other challenges in forest degradation,
dwindling water resources, traffic congestion, soil degradation,
rural urban migration, etc. that needs to be addressed too. Any
of these issues poses an imminent threat to our nation state.
The state of our water resources is particularly scary as deforestation,
urbanization, galamsey and climate change continue to pose challenges.
In an industrializing environment, the demand for fresh water increases
to meet the needs of new factories, expanded agriculture, accelerated
population densities in industrial towns and cities, and expected
higher living standards.
Giant problems require giant solutions. We must think big if we
want to thrive, and we must think long term. We must take bold and
courageous decisions and get rid of fear. If we plan holistically,
we realize the solutions are much inter-related, and may not require
as much as we might think. We need to craft appropriate spider-web
economic strategy to solve them.
There is no better time to develop as technology and knowledge
has made things easier. At the time of the Industrial Revolution,
the Europeans did not know a fraction of what we know today. Yet
they made it. The mineral industry - a trillion dollar value - can
play a significant role in realizing Ghana’s recovery. But
every part of this sweet land has its strengths. Even Bongo, the
poorest district in Ghana has beautiful green flat landscapes with
stunning natural granite outcrops ideal for recreation and tourism.
There is a great danger in our continued reliance on external partners
for our living. We need to take matters in our own hands. The problems
did not start now. They started decades ago. Thus similarly, we
do not have to make decisions on the basis of now, we have to think
of the future.
We must start with what we have - our people. We never know how
far we can go until we start. Franklin D. Roosevelt, the thirty-second
US President said it is reasonable to take a method and try it.
If it fails, we must admit it frankly and try another. But above
all, we must try something. If previous methods failed, there is
always room to try others.
The East Asian miracle was caused by leaders who made bold and
courageous decisions, who when they realized that something was
not working, quickly got back with their technocrats and redesigned
to make them work.
I hope this helps as we move our Nation forward in the right direction.
Article : Charles Kwame Boakye
Institute for Infrastructure Development, Accra